Cllr Colin Rayner (Con, Horton and Wraysbury) took the Chain of Office from outgoing mayor Cllr Asghar Majeed during a ceremony at Windsor Guildhall.
He pledged to continue the support and encouragement shown to the borough by previous mayors.
"I will do so with the energy and commitment that our residents deserve," he said.
Cllr Rayner will be supported by his wife of 22 years, Samantha.
He has selected the Prince Phillip Trust Fund for the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead as his chosen charity.
The ceremony began with an address by Cllr Majeed (Con, Oldfield).
"It's been a wonderful year," he said.
"Not bad for a humble Yorkshireman."
The role of deputy mayor for the coming year will be fulfilled by Cllr Andrew Jenner (Con, Riverside), with his wife Julia acting as deputy mayoress.
The event was the last formal meeting for Royal Borough chief executive Ian Trenholm, who is leaving the council to take up a job with Defra.
Read more in tomorrow's Advertiser and Friday's Express.
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The Met Office has issued a yellow alert for Windsor and Maidenhead, Slough and Wokingham, warning that rain moving eastwards across the south of the country may turn to snow in some places.