Network Rail contractors are due to arrive at the site in Braywick Road on Saturday and will be a permanent fixture throughout the summer.
Changes to the station including lengthened platforms to make room for 10-car Crossrail trains, a new lift, enhanced station information facilities, security systems and CCTV equipment.
Work to refurbish the station canopies - to allow for electrification of the tracks - will start in August.
Services operator First Great Western (FGW) said it will be working with Network Rail to minimise disruption.
The number of parking spaces at the front of the station will be reduced during the work but bays will stay in place for permit holders. Other parking will be put in place in Silco Drive, a 10-minute walk away.
FGW said that rail services won't be affected to start with but work likely to impact on train times will be carried out 'during the quietest weeks of the holiday period'.
It added that customers will be kept informed of developments through events, posters and flyers.
Minor preliminary work away from the platforms and passenger areas was carried out during the winter.
Leader of the Royal Borough, Cllr David Burbage, said: "We are delighted to see the work commence.
"Crossrail has been something we have been talking about for many years and it is great that is it is finally coming to Maidenhead in a visible way and that the work is beginning."
More than 10,000 contractors are working across 40 sites to ensure Crossrail is up and running in five years.
It is expected to be in operation by December 2019.
The service, costing £14.8bn, will link Reading and Heathrow in the west to Shenfield and Abbey Wood in the east, via new tunnels under central London.
The scheme is set to bring an extra 1.5 million people within 45 minutes of central London with new electric trains using a combination of existing and brand new railway lines.
* On Tuesday (July 8) from 2-7pm , the public is invited to a drop-in information session at the station led by Network Rail and Crossrail Ltd.
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